X-Ray testing ranks top in importance of all of the testing that is done on industrial products. X-ray inspection examines the integrity of the product. X-Ray inspection is also commonly known in the industry as radioscopy or fluoroscopy.
Basics of X-ray Inspection Imaging
An X-ray tube emits x-rays which are directed onto the cast objects and are detected by digital imaging. Any product defects, degradations or cavities such as porosity, are detected by X-Ray inspection.
X-ray Inspection Techniques
X-Ray imaging begins by taking a large number of two dimensional (2D) X-ray images. Acquisition can be through a fan beam in which separate slices are radiographed while the component is rotated in small angular steps and moved linearly along the fan beam. As a result, the data collected is a series of slices of the entire component. Alternatively, acquisition can also be effected via a cone beam, where a radiation cone captures the item to be radiographed and receives separate 2-D images while the component is rotated 360° in small increments. In both cases, the accumulated raw data is then used for reconstruction algorithms to calculate and visualize the volume data.
Essentially, the basic data collection hardware components in an X-Ray inspection are: a high-power radiation source; a steering table or mechanism; and an X-ray detector. The quality of the raw data and the accuracy of all subsequent assessments are significantly affected by the sharpness of the X-ray images, and this depends largely on the quality of the source and detector, as well as the stability and sensitivity of the steering mechanism.
X-Ray Inspection in The Automotive and Manufacturing Sectors
X-ray control in the automotive and manufacturing sectors differs slightly from those in the aerospace sector. While product safety is still very important, it is vital that any quality control procedure delivers fast and accurate results so that there is minimal downtime in production. Digital 2D radiography is often used in these sectors, but there are cases where 2D examination is not sufficient.
Similarly, failure analysis using traditional mechanical slicing destructive techniques takes a lot of time. In addition, many quality control procedures in the automotive and manufacturing sectors often look at dimensional tolerances by comparing the final product with the original CAD drawing. Traditionally this is accomplished with tactile or optical coordinate measuring machines (CMM’s). These may sometimes fail to perform the necessary metrology required for some products, especially when such products have hard-to-reach inner surfaces or have soft outer surfaces that can be deformed by tactile measurement.
X-ray Inspections in The Electronics Industry
Two-dimensional X-ray control is a non-destructive technology that has been used for more than 20 years in the electronics manufacturing industry and much longer in oil and gas and general engineering. However, 3D industrial computerized tomography (CT) has been very limited to the R&D environment and in the manufacturing sector, its application is often limited to the analysis of structure and defects for high-value and complex components.
Nevertheless, recent automation, speed and accuracy improvements have now allowed CT technology to be deployed in manufacturing. Here, it can be used as a powerful quality control and process optimization tool that allows fast and accurate inspection and measurement of components that are difficult to examine using CMM or traditional radiography.
X-Ray Inspection on The Production Line
The latest innovations in X-Ray inspections have brought this technology directly on to the production line. Based on proven medical technology, it introduces a new work-flow concept into the process of checking production. It features high-speed, automatic spiral CT. Here, the X-ray tube and the corresponding 64-channel gantry, the multi-line detector revolves around the product being worked on as it is carried on a conveyor belt. The reconstructed CT data of the part being analysed is automatically evaluated at the same time as the next part is loaded into the system.
For example, conventional fan can scan a cylinder head in 15 seconds using a CT rather than the usual few hours, meaning that qualitative production data is almost immediately available to be used, and should any serious defect be detected, or if any production dimension is missing, this allows the reset of parameters to be carried out quickly.
KALKANCI X-Ray Inspections
Here at KALKANCI, we place great importance on delivering products from our production line which match expectations in terms of value and quality. Thus X-Ray inspections, which comprise the first phase of our wide ranging Quality Control process, are able to reveal at once any possible failures, cracks or defects.
Our company’s X-ray inspections are carried out by a YXLON X-Ray machine which has a high project and mass production inspection capacity. We chose this product for its appropriateness in view of our service quality and processes, and the reasons for our choice can be listed as follows:
- 2D and 3D images appear in very short periods of time
- Consistent error analysis thanks to high resolution images
- User-friendly interface
- Review option for advanced technologies
- High-performance CT inspections
- Advanced industry CT reconstruction