Materials Analysis focuses on the physical and chemical properties of the material to be used and is the name given to the process of analysing and monitoring the properties of the products to be produced including the materials which will go into producing the actual product.
How is Materials Analysis Conducted?
This process is carried out with high-tech devices called Spectrometers. A Spectrometer is a machine used to perform materials analysis. One needs to understand exactly how Spectrometers measure and deliver results before one can analyse the resulting data. While a good portion of the data is relatively simple, a little more information may be needed to fully understand the units of measurement for a spectrometer. Although it’s not very difficult to understand the units of measurement, nevertheless the results are probably not presented in a way that one encounters elsewhere.
What is a Spectrometer?
To understand units of measurement, you need to understand what a Spectrometer measures.
A Spectrometer is a type of spectroscopy, which means that a Spectrometer measures the amount of energy absorbed by matter and the light it emits during the process. Essentially, each substance will transmit or absorb light, and the frequency at which the substance does so determines what the substance is.
Spectrometers measure the frequency emitted by the substance being analysed. Clearly, it has its own units to determine this frequency, as it is not as easily measurable as, say units of distance or weight.
Many types of Spectrometer use radiation (e.g. x-rays) to derive a reaction from the sample to identify its composition.
Such reactions cannot be determined by monitoring the reaction, as they are usually not visible to the human eye. This means that measurements are made through tools.
Units of Absorption
Given that light measurement involves methods that go clearly beyond what the human eye can see, the units of the spectrometer reflect the complexity of that which is measured.
The wavelength of light absorption or transmittance is measured by nanometres of wavelength. Although the unit seems simple, a machine is necessary because the human eye cannot fully perceive the frequency of absorption or passing of such a small length.
The spectrometer also gives results about the intensity of light. This requires the use of several complex formulas to calculate the spectral permeability of the sample or object being studied.
Although it covers more than just information regarding Spectrometers, the Chemistry Libre Texts provide a great deal of detail on how casting and refraction is involved in how spectrophotometry measures light.
Chemistry Libre Text
It may not be necessary to understand all the mathematics involved in the measurements, but it can be exciting for those who are interested. Additional information also gives you a little more in-depth information about how different methods are better solutions for different needs.
Note that Spectrometers measure a much wider range than visible light, which is only a fraction of the wavelengths of light. The full wavelength of light ranges from gamma rays (10-5 nanometres) to radio waves (1013 nanometres). Though radio waves can be thousands of meters long, gamma rays cannot be seen with the human eye because their wavelength is so small.
Optical Emission Spectrometers (OES)
Optical Emission Spectrometers consist of the application of electrical energy in the form of a spark generated between an electrode and a metal sample. As a result, evaporating atoms are brought into a high-energy state within what is called discharge plasma. Then, within the discharge plasma, these excited-state atoms and ions create a specific emission spectrum unique to each element. As a result, a single element can easily create a large number of characteristic emission spectral lines.
It can also be said that any light produced by the discharge is a collection of spectral lines produced by elements within the sample. This light can be divided by a diffraction grate. This is done to extract the emission spectrum for the target elements. The concentration of a given element in the sample determines the intensity of each emission spectrum. This involves the application of electrical energy in the form of a spark generated between an electrode and a metal sample. As a result, evaporating atoms are brought into a high-energy state within what is called discharge plasma. Then, within the discharge plasma, these excited-state atoms and ions create a specific emission spectrum unique to each element. As a result, a single element can easily create a large number of characteristic emission spectral lines.
KALKANCI Materials Analysis
Materials analysis must form the cornerstone of the quality control process for every company engaged in modern industrial production today and it is a control process that we here at KALKANCI are keenly aware of and focused on. This phase of production, which is prerequisite for the quality and reliability of the final product, includes many additional inspection items depending on morphology, size, purity and the production process.
Our laboratory uses equipment from globally leading suppliers. With devices from Spectromax, ZwickNikon, Affri and Mitutoyo, we ensure the best performance and reviews whilst managing our processes with optimally low operating costs.
Our equipment suite includes Spectrometers for use in metallographic analysis, microscopes for measuring and analysing macro hardness as well as Surface Roughness Devices for Cutting, Polishing, Tensile-Compression-Bending test, etc. In addition, raw material and product controls are carried out at every stage of the process from raw materials input to product output controls.